(Ne)závislosť na poli: kognitívny štýl či schopnosť?

Lenka Krajčíková

Abstrakt


Predkladaný krátky článok pojednáva o testovaní kognitívneho štýlu závislosti/nezávislosti na poli podľa Witkina. Tento kognitívny štýl popísaný v 50. rokoch bol v niekoľkých posledných dekádach vystavený kritike, ktorá sa na jednej strane týka samotnej definície kognitívneho štýlu, na strane druhej i metód, ktoré sú k testovaniu tohto štýlu používané. V práci sa čitateľ dozvie ako o metódach testovania závislosti/nezávislosti na poli tak o kritike tohto konceptu. Hlavným zámerom článku je poskytnúť historický exkurz do testovania kognitívneho štýlu závislosti/nezávislosti na poli pomocou testu k tomu pôvodne určenému (Embedded Figures Test). Čitateľ sa dozvie o nejednoznačnosti použitia testu EFT a pochybnostiach o tom, že skutočne testuje spomínaný kognitívny štýl. Test samotný bude predstavený v novom svetle potenciálne zaujímavého nástoja na testovanie priestorovej kognitívnej schopnosti či všeobecnej inteligencie, čo je však nutné ďalším výskumom objasniť.

 

Presented short paper deals with testing of cognitive style of field dependence/independence by Herman Witkin. This cognitive style described in fifties was wildly criticized in last couple of decades. The criticism was aimed towards the definition of a cognitive style and also towards methods evaluating and testing this so called cognitive style. The paper describes various methods of testing this style and provides brief overview of a criticism of the concept. The main goal of this paper is to provide a historical overview of testing cognitive style of field dependence/independence and to evaluate test created for that purpose (Embedded Figures Test). The reader will find out that EFT is not a completely valid method of testing cognitive style mentioned above and there are some doubts about what this test is really measuring. EFT will be introduced from a slightly different angle, as an interesting method of testing spatial cognitive ability or general intelligence, but these new options of use of EFT require further research.

 


Klíčová slova


závislosť na poli; kognitívny štýl; kognitívna schopnosť; psychometrika; field dependence; cognitive style; cognitive ability; psychometrics


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Tento projekt je spolufinancován Evropským fondem a státním rozpočtem České republikyTESTFÓRUM: Časopis pro psychologickou diagnostiku
Pracovní skupina ČMPS pro psychologickou diagnostiku
a Katedra psychologie FSS MU
ISSN: 1805-9147